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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

New York City

New York City (NYC), often called simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States.[11] Located at the southern tip of the U.S. state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass.[12] With almost 20 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and approximately 23 million in its combined statistical area, it is one of the world’s most populous megacities. New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, significantly influencing commerce,[13] entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations,[14] New York is an important center for international diplomacy.[15][16]

Situated on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City is composed of five boroughs, each of which is a county of the State of New York. The five boroughs—BrooklynQueensManhattanthe Bronx, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898.[17] The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York,[18] making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States,[19] the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016.[20][21] As of 2019, the New York metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $2.0 trillion. If the New York metropolitan area were a sovereign state, it would have the eighth-largest economy in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world.

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Nei Lingding Island

In May 1513, the PortugueseexplorerJorge Álvares arrived at an island near the coast of China they called “Tamão“.[4] This was the first contact of Europeans with China via the sea route around the Cape of Good Hope.[5] Tamão was fortified by Simão de Andrade and reclaimed by the Chinese during the expulsion of the Portuguese in the 1520s.[6] Western scholarship, following J. M. Braga, generally contends that this “Tamão” is Nei Lingding, the main island in the mouth of the Pearl River, 6 km off the coast of the mainland. Recent Chinese scholarship finds this identification to be insufficiently proven, however, and suggests a number of other potential islands including the nearby and far larger Lantau Island

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Jorge Álvares

n May 1513, Álvares sailed under the Portuguese Malacca captain Rui de Brito Patalim in a junk from Pegu. The expedition was accompanied by five other junks. Álvares himself was accompanied by two other Portuguese mariners.[1]

Álvares made first contact on Chinese soil on an island near the historic city of Guangzhou in southern China in May 1513.[2] The location of the island, which the Portuguese called Tamão, is not exactly known except that it is in the Pearl River Delta, and scholarship has suggested islands such as Lantau Island and Lintin Island as potential candidates. Upon landing on Tamão, Álvares raised a padrão from the king of Portugal.[1] Based on information from their captain, they hoped to find trade. Soon after this, Afonso de Albuquerque, the Viceroy of the Estado da Índia dispatched Rafael Perestrello—a cousin of Christopher Columbus[3]—to seek trade relations with the Chinese. In a ship from Malacca, Rafael Perestrello landed on the southern shores of Guangdong later that year in 1513.[3]

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth‘s oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents of Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth’s water surface and about 32% of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth’s land area combined.[1] The centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. Ocean circulation ( caused by the Coriolis effect ) subdivides it into two largely independent volumes of water, which meet at the equator: the North(ern) Pacific Ocean and South(ern) Pacific Ocean. The Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.[2]

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Russia

Russia,[c] or the Russian Federation,[14][d] is a transcontinental country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It extends from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the south. Russia covers over 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), spanning more than one-eighth of the Earth’s inhabited land area, stretching eleven time zones, and bordering 16 sovereign nationsMoscow is the country’s capital and largest city, other major cities include Saint PetersburgNovosibirskYekaterinburgKazanNizhny NovgorodChelyabinsk and Samara.

Russia is the largest country in the world, the ninth-most populous country, as well as the most populous country in Europe. The country is one of the world’s most sparsely populated and urbanized. About half of the country’s total area is forested, concentrating around four-fifths of its total population of over 146.7 million on its smaller and dense western portion, as opposed to its larger and sparse eastern portion. Russia is administratively divided into 85 federal subjects. The Moscow Metropolitan Area is the largest metropolitan area in Europe, and among the largest in the world, with more than 20 million residents.

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Persians

The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[2][3] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as languages closely related to Persian.[7]

The ancient Persians were originally an ancient Iranian people who migrated to the region of Persis, corresponding to the modern province of Fars in southwestern Iran, by the ninth century BC.[8][9] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world’s most powerful empires,[10][9] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world.[11][12][13] Throughout history, Persians have contributed greatly to art and science.[14][15][16] Persian literature is one of the world’s most prominent literary traditions.[17]

In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native specifically to present-day AfghanistanTajikistan, and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the Caucasus (primarily in the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan and the Russian federal subject of Dagestan), albeit heavily assimilated, are referred to as Tats.[18][19] However, historically, the terms Tajik and Tat were used as synonymous and interchangeable with Persian.[18] Many influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran’s present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.[20][21] In historical contexts, especially in English, “Persians” may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background.

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire (Assyrian cuneiform mat Aš-šur KI, “Country of the city of god Aššur“; also phonetically  mat Aš-šur)[a] was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC,[10][11][12] and became the largest empire of the world up until that time.[13][unreliable source?] The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in later empires.[14] The Assyrians were the first to be armed with iron weapons, and their troops employed advanced, effective military tactics.[15]

Following the conquests of Adad-nirari II in the late 10th century BC, Assyria emerged as the most powerful state in the world at the time, coming to dominate the Ancient Near EastEast MediterraneanAsia MinorCaucasus, and parts of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, eclipsing and conquering rivals such as BabyloniaElamPersiaUrartuLydia, the MedesPhrygiansCimmeriansIsraelJudahPhoeniciaChaldeaCanaan, the Kushite Empire, the Arabs, and Egypt.

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (PaleolithicMesolithicNeolithic, and Chalcolithic) and the Bronze Age. The concept has been mostly applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy, also to other parts of the Old World.

The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration. It is defined by archaeological convention, and the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture; rather, the “Iron Age” begins locally when the production of iron or steel has been brought to the point where iron tools and weapons superior to their bronze equivalents become widespread.[1] For example, Tutankhamun’s meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC. The technology soon spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin region and to South Asia. Its further spread to Central AsiaEastern Europe, and Central Europe is somewhat delayed, and Northern Europe is reached still later, by about 500 BC.

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Opti.Space Demo & Testing

Ancient history test

Ancient history (*) as a term refers to the aggregate of past events[1] from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of time or the academic discipline.

The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with the Sumerian cuneiform script, with the oldest coherent texts from about 2600 BC.[2] Ancient history covers all continents inhabited by humans in the period 3000 BC – AD 500.

The broad term “ancient history” is not to be confused with “classical antiquity”. The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to Western history in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (first Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece.

The academic term “history” is not to be confused with colloquial references to times past. History is fundamentally the study of the past, and can be either scientific (archaeology) or humanistic (history through language).